Community pharmacists: Underutilized resources in the HIV care team. Anal sex is a common practice among men who have sex with men, heterosexual men and women, and transgender individuals and is a known risk factor for HIV infection and transmission. Therefore, it is important that education on HIV prevention includes accurate information on the fluids that can transmit HIV through this type of sex. If one of these fluids is excluded from prevention messaging, it could lead a client to underestimate their risk of HIV transmission.
What are the risks of anal sex?
Anal Sex | HIV Risk and Prevention | HIV/AIDS | CDC
Background The human immunodeficiency virus HIV infectiousness of anal intercourse AI has not been systematically reviewed, despite its role driving HIV epidemics among men who have sex with men MSM and its potential contribution to heterosexual spread. PubMed was searched to September Results A total of 62 titles were searched; four publications reporting per-act and 12 reporting per-partner transmission estimates were included. Overall, random effects model summary estimates were 1. Our modelling demonstrated that it would require unreasonably low numbers of AI HIV exposures per partnership to reconcile the summary per-act and per-partner estimates, suggesting considerable variability in AI infectiousness between and within partnerships over time.
What Is the Risk of HIV From Anal Sex?
The risk of HIV transmission during anal intercourse may be around 18 times greater than during vaginal intercourse, according to the results of a meta-analysis published online ahead of print in the International Journal of Epidemiology. Moreover, as well as this empirical work, the researchers from Imperial College and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine carried out a modelling exercise to estimate the impact that HIV treatment has on infectiousness during anal intercourse. They estimate that the risk of transmission from a man with suppressed viral load may be reduced by as much as Anal intercourse drives the HIV epidemic amongst gay and bisexual men. Moreover a substantial proportion of heterosexuals have anal sex but tend to use condoms less frequently than for vaginal sex, and this may contribute to heterosexual epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa and elsewhere.
The risk of HIV through unprotected anal intercourse is seen to be extremely high, as much 18 times greater than vaginal intercourse. The reasons for the increased risk are well known and include such factors as:. Furthermore, the secretion of blood from damaged rectal tissues can increase the risk for the insertive "top" partner, providing the virus a route of transmission through the urethra and tissues that line the head of the penis particularly under the foreskin.